SEISMIC DESIGN
Three modules, SE1, SE2, and DYN, are available in AxisVM for seismic analysis and design of structures: modal response spectrum analysis, pushover analysis, and timehistory analysis, respectively. In modal response spectrum analysis, a standard conforming or user specified custom design spectrum can be used. The analysis takes into account torsional effects and different spectra can be selected for each global direction. With pushover analysis, the nonlinear response of the structure can be obtained, taking into account geometrical and material nonlinearities, nonlinear finite elements, and plastic hinges.
SE1 MODAL RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS
The SE1 module includes several tools that facilitate the execution of Modal Response Spectrum Analysis (MRSA) in AxisVM. The tools automatically perform seismic load generation in three orthogonal directions for each vibration mode, the computation of the structural response for each vibration mode, and the combination of the modal responses into a governing seismic effect. Results from individual modes can be combined using either the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) or the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method. The program calculates additional torsional moments about the vertical axis for every storey and mode shape. The magnitude of torsional moments depends on the horizontal load and eccentricity of each storey.
Requirements / recommendations

the SE1 module can only be used for linear analysis

the use of SE2 or DYN modules is recommended if nonlinear analysis is required
DESIGN CODES
CHARACTERISTICS
➡ seismic effects can be given via code conforming or a user defined custom spectrum
➡ consideration of torsional effects on each storey
➡ different spectra can be used in global X, Y and Z directions
➡ displacement behaviour factor
➡ optimal SRSS or CQC summation rules
➡ capacity design is available for concrete beams and columns
DETAILS
CUSTOM DESIGN SPECTRUM
In AxisVM, both standard conforming and user specified custom design spectra can be used to define seismic effects at the investigated site. Custom spectra are defined in the Spectral function editor after setting the Design spectrum from Parametric shape to Custom. Spectra are created in the editor by a piecewise linear approximation of the spectral shape over a list of predefined natural periods (T) – spectral acceleration coordinate (Sd) pairs.
TORSIONAL EFFECTS
In order to consider torsional effects in the seismic analysis, storeys of the structures and the value of accidental eccentricity need to be defined. The magnitude of torsional moments depends on the horizontal load and eccentricity of each storey. Horizontal loads are retrieved from load cases corresponding to each vibration mode and horizontal direction. Torsional moments are considered with either + or – signs, but always with the same sign at all storeys.
SUMMATION RULES
AxisVM provides control over the combination of results for individual modes and individual directions. Results from individual modes can be combined using either

the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) or

the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC)
method.
The latter is considered more appropriate if the vibration modes of the structure are not well separated (i.e. vibration frequencies are close to each other). Results in the two horizontal and the vertical directions can be combined using either of the two commonly used combination methods, namely with SRSS or 30% rules.
SE2 PUSHOVER ANALYSIS
Pushover analysis is a nonlinear static seismic analysis method that can be used in case of structures with a dominant vibration shape. It can be used to obtain the nonlinear response of a structure that is described with the socalled capacity curve. Pushover analysis is mainly used to design dissipative structures or to assess the performace of existing structures. In case of dissipative structures, plastic hinges are designed in order to ensure the dissipation of seismic energy via plastic behaviour.
In AxisVM, nonlinear, plastic materials, nonlinear finite elements, nonlinear supports, and concentrated plastic hinges are available to characterize the nonlinear structural behaviour.
Requirements / recommendations

at least NL1 configuration is required for nonlinear analysis
DESIGN CODES
CHARACTERISTICS
➡ uniform and modal load distibution
➡ different analysis parameters can be defined in X and Y directions
➡ options and tools to model structural nonlinearity
➡ concentrated plastic hinges
➡ effects of accidental eccentricities and the resultant torsional moments may be included
➡ calculation of target displacement
➡ calculation of ADRS spectrum
➡ calculation of interstory drifts
DETAILS
TARGET DISPLACEMENT
Target displacement is calculated based on the elastic spectrum and capacity curve with the help of the socalled N2 method recommended in Appendix B of Eurocode 8.
The design value of seismic forces may be read from the capacity curve at target displacement level. Dissipative zones need to be checked in terms of deformations related to target displacement, while nondissipative elements need to be checked in terms of load bearing capacity, including overstrength. Deformation capacity of the structure has to exceed the target displacement by 50%
ADRS SPECTRUM
The AccelerationDisplacement Response Spectrum (ADRS) is calculated and displayed by AxisVM. The ductility of the structures can be seen on the ADRS spectrum.
INTERSTOREY DRIFTS
AxisVM calculates and displays absolute drifts and relative storey displacement (interstory drift) ratios. The diagram of absolute drift shows the horizontal displacement of the center of gravity of storeys relative to the ground. The interstorey drift ratio diagram shows the interstorey drift expressed as a percentage of the storey height. The latter diagram helps to check if the structure meets the drift limit requirements of the selected design code.
DYN TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS
The timehistory analysis of the DYN module can be used to evaluate the linear or nonlinear dynamic structural response under seismic excitation. This type of seismic analysis is the most complex, and for this reason, it is typically used in special circumstances (high importance or seismicaly isolated structures, etc.). To perform the analysis, socalled accelerograms (ground acceleration timehistories) are required to describe the ground motion by giving ground acceleration as a function of time.
Similar to the Pushover analysis, nonlinear, plastic materials, nonlinear finite elements, nonlinear supports, and concentrated plastic hinges are available to characterize the nonlinear structural behaviour.
A detailed description of the DYN module can be found on the Dynamic Analysis page while this short summary covers only the capabilities with respect to seismic analysis