### STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel is used for almost every type of structures, including industrial buildings, infrastructure, bridges, high-rise buildings, towers, etc. AxisVM provides a complete solution for the analysis and design of steel and other metal structures, including strength and stability verifications, fire design of members, and design of welded and bolted connections. Critical load multipliers and buckling shapes can be obtained from a buckling analysis for frame, truss, and shell structures. AxisVM also supports finding the optimal design solutions.

### SD1 -DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS

The SD1 module performs the design and verification of steel structural members in ultimate (ULS) and serviceability (SLS) limit states. Flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling, web shear buckling, and strength verifications considering axial forces, bending moments, shear forces, and their interaction are included. Both elastic and plastic design methods are allowed, depending on the cross-section classification. The class of the cross-section, buckling length (FB), and critical bending moment (LTB) can be determined automatically or can be specified by the user. The software verifies the deflections of beams and the sway of columns in SLS load combinations. Detailed documentation of the design calculations can be created.

#### DESIGN CODES

#### CHARACTERISTICS

➡ automatic classification of the cross-section considering the internal force

➡ design of members with class 4 cross-section

➡ automatic determination of critical axial force and critical bending moment

➡ detailed documentation of the design calculations

#### CROSS-SECTIONS

➡ rolled I profiles

➡ welded I profiles

➡ hollow rectangular profiles

➡ circular profiles

➡ single symmetric I profiles

➡ T profiles

➡ solid rectangular and circular profiles

! limited support for custom/arbitrary profiles

#### DETAILS

#### FLEXURAL BUCKLING

The critical axial force / buckling length of the design members can be calculated automatically. The so-called AutoNcr method determines buckling length based on the geometry and the distribution of internal forces in the model. The buckling length of each design member is computed considering the stiffenning effect of the connecting members. This method is based on the rules recommended by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS TC8: Rules for Member Stability in EN 1993-1-1: Background documentation and design guidelines).

#### LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

The critical bending moment can be calculated by a formula or automatically by AxisVM. This method creates a finite element sub-model for each design member and using which it determines the Mcr for each load combination. This method handles variable cross-sections and cantilevers as well. The finite element sub-model of a beam contains at least 30 finite elements in which each node has four degrees of freedom that are essential for the lateral torsional buckling. This method builds the beam stiffness considering two components: the first one is linear, the second one has geometric nonlinearity.

### SD8 -FIRE DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS

Fire design of steel members is available in SD8 module. The design calculation considers the reduction in strength and stiffness of steel material on elevated temperature that makes steel structures very sensitive for stability failure in fire. Critical temperature that is one of the essential parameters by the selection of intumescent coating thickness is also an outcome of the design calculation. The fire effect is given by standardized prescriptive, parametric or user-defined fire curve (considering simulation or fire test results). Steel temperature is calculated automatically by closed formula or by the solution of two-dimensional heat conduction problem. The calculation of steel temperature considers the effect of passive fire protection material on the element.

#### DESIGN CODES

#### CHARACTERISTICS

➡ automatic calculation of steel temperature using a standard, parametric, or user-defined fire curve

➡ design of members with class 4 cross-section

➡ stability parameters for fire design

➡ calculation of critical temperature

➡ detailed documentation of the design calculations

#### DETAILS

#### TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION

Steel temperature is generally determined via closed formula from the design code however, for I and rectangular hollow sections a more accurate temperature distribution may be used. Temperatures within the cross-section are calculated by the finite difference method. In this case, a two-dimensional heat conduction problem is solved. The analysis considers the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of the steel material.

#### CRITICAL TEMPERATURE

In many cases, the critical temperature (steel temperature where failure of the element occurs) also has to be determined. For example, the thickness of intumescent coating fire protection is selected on the basis of section factor (A/V) and critical temperature. AxisVM determines the critical temperature along the design member, which can lead to a more economical and cost-effective design.

#### VIDEO

The design calculation considers the reduction in strength and stiffness of steel material on elevated temperature that makes steel structures very sensitive for stability failure in fire. Critical temperature that is one of the essential parameters by the selection of intumescent coating thickness is also an outcome of the design calculation. The fire effect is given by standardized prescriptive, parametric or user-defined fire curve (considering simulation or fire test results). Steel temperature is calculated automatically by closed formula or by the solution of two-dimensional heat conduction problem. The calculation of steel temperature considers the effect of passive fire protection material on the element.

### SD9 -CROSS-SECTION OPTIMIZATION FOR STEEL MEMBERS

Cross-section optimization of steel structures makes previously defined and designed steel design members more efficient by fine-tuning the cross-section dimensions and reducing the self-weight. The optimization uses the steel design parameters previously assigned to the design members and it can also be performed with the consideration of fire design rules for load combinations that contain fire load case. The objective of optimization can be minimum weight, minimum height or minimum width. AxisVM uses the so-called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic computational method for finding optimum.

#### DESIGN CODES

#### The SD9 module is independent from standards

#### CHARACTERISTICS

➡ the objective of optimization can be minimum weight, minimum height, or minimum width

➡ a heuristic search algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is invoked to find the optimum

➡ optimization with the consideration of fire design rules

#### CROSS-SECTIONS

➡ I profiles

➡ single symmetric I profiles

➡ rectangular and circular hollow profiles

➡ T profile

➡ C profile

➡ 2U profiles

! Variable cross-sections cannot be optimized

#### DETAILS

#### OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an evolutionary algorithm developed in the 1990s. The PSO process runs for a given number of iterations, and due to its stochastic nature, it can find multiple local optimums. The number of iterations is determined by the program trying to balance running time and the fullest possible mapping of the search-space. Moreover, if the algorithm finds no changes in the results after a long period, it assumes that it detected the global optimum. In multi-threaded mode, the search space is partitioned among the threads.

### SC1 -DESIGN OF WELDED AND BOLTED STEEL CONNECTIONS

Design and verification of welded and bolted steel connections can be performed with the SC1 module. Altogether, eleven connection types are supported. The so-called component method is applied that means that the resistance of the connection is determined on the basis of the resistances of its basic components. 3D rendered view and detailed documentation with view and section drawings can be generated.

#### DESIGN CODES

#### CHARACTERISTICS

➡ flexible and user-friendly definition of design parameters

➡ 3D view of the connection

➡ design of welded and bolted connections

➡ detailed documentation of design calculations

#### CONNECTION TYPES

➡ column – beam (semi-rigid)

➡ column – beam (nominally pinned)

➡ girder – beam (semi-rigid)

➡ girder – Beam (nominally pinned)

➡ beam – beam (end-plate)

➡ beam – column (end-plate)

➡ column base

➡ pipe splice

➡ gusset plate (single truss)

➡ tube node

#### DETAILS

#### DETAILED DESIGN CALCULATION

Detailed documentation of the design calculations can be generated and attached to the report by one simple click. The documentation includes: 1) view and section drawings of the connection and dimension lines; 2) geometric and material properties of the components; 3) internal forces and moments at the node; 4) design results. The utilization results are colour-mapped. Green colour means it passed, and the red means it did not pass.

#### VIDEO

SC1 is a plugin for AxisVM (structural analysis and design software). It allows to design many types of steel connections. The video presents the multiselection feature which helps to verify many nodes at once.